Standing Up for the Gospel of the Christ
as it is Proclaimed in the Greek Text !
Empowering the Independent Communities of Yahowah and Yahoshua
|The Hillel II Calendar Was Not Used Previously:
|Yahowah IS 1: "One God" Means the Creator YHWH is a Singular Being, One Person having One Intellect, The only Elohim of Israel, The Father, who resurrected 'the Yahoshua', the promised Messiah.|
|• The Ancient Jewish and Babylonian Calendar Was The Exact Same Calendar|
"Studies Relating to Jewish Contracts with Persian Culture Throughout the Ages", Jerusalem 1990.
"The Calendar of Aramaic Texts from Achaemenid and Ptolemaic Egypt", Bezalel Porten.
After analysis of all double-dated textual discoveries made up to 1990,
the Babylonian and Jewish Calendar dates were identical,
and both matched the Egyptian Calendar dates.
[Begin Quote, Page 31-32]
"Our chronological investigation leads to the following conclusions:
. . .
2. The Babylonian and Egyptian calendars were synchronously observed between the years [BC] 473 and 402, both in private contracts and stone inscriptions from Elephantine [the fully functional Jewish Temple in Egypt] and bureaucratic records from Memphis (AG) and elsewhere (C72). The Babylonian date regularly appeared first.
. . .
4. The Egyptian calendar was regularly used in the dating of private letters (Padua 1, C37, 42, K13) and accounts (C22, 63, 68, Ahiqar palimpsest), all but one (Ahiqar palimpsest) stemming from the end of the fifth century, and appears on an isolated tax receipt from the middle of the third century (Spiegelberg ostracon).
The Babylonian calendar was regularly used in the dating of official letters and stone inscriptions, also stemming from the last quarter of the fifth century (C17, 21, 26, 30, 31; Ashmolean), and is found in a Ptolemaic record of accounts (Papyrus Levi Della Vida).
. . .
9. There is no evidence for a Jewish calendar at Elephantine as distinct from the Babylonian calendar."
There is no historical evidence that the Jewish Temple or Jewish Communities used a different Lunar Calendar, than what is today generally called "The Babylonian Calendar". The "The Babylonian Calendar" and "The Jewish Calendar" are one and the same Calendar, because it was the same few academy graduated scholars which knew the tightly guarded secret science of how to determine the monthly and yearly Lunar Cycles.
This means that all of the thousands of artifacts giving astronomical sun, moon, and planet tables, using (what is generally called) Babylonian Calendar dates, are also direct evidence for the ancient Jewish Calendar's event-dating too.
Jewish Contracts with Persian Culture
|• The Mishnah/Talmud Give Examples Against the Postponement Rules|
For Examples: taken from "The Mishnah", translated by Herbert Danby, Oxford Press:
Page 113: "3. Beds may be spread on the night of Sabbath for the Sabbath day, but not on the Sabbath for the night following the Sabbath.
R. Ishmael says: Garments may be folded up and beds spread on the Day of Atonement for the Sabbath [Atonement is on Friday]; and the fat pieces of the Sabbath offering may be brought on the Day of Atonement.
R. Akiba says: They may bring neither those for the Sabbath on the Day of Atonement [Atonement is on Friday] nor those for the Day of Atonement on the Sabbath."
[NOTE: The Hillel II Calendar's postponement rules prevent Atonement from ever occurring on Friday or Sunday.]
Page 117: "if a Festival-day falls after the Sabbath the child is circumcised on the eleventh day; and if the two Festival-days of the New Year fall after the Sabbath the child is circumcised on the twelfth day.
R. Eliezer says: On a Festival-day next to a Sabbath, whether before it or after it . . ."
[NOTE: The Hillel II Calendars Postponement Rules prevent Festival days from falling on a Friday or a Sunday.]
(I) mMeg. 1:4, in the time frame of Rabban Gamliel (80 - 116 C.E.):
"If the Megillah has been read in the First Adar [during Purim], and then the year is intercalated, it must be read again in the Second Adar."
[NOTE: This demonstrates that, even after the time of the Messiah, the decision to intercalate months could still be made, at any time, based upon actual observation, and was not determined ahead-of-time, nor by a fixed 19-year cycle. The Hillel II Calendar is based on a fixed 19 year cycle, and has all months and the number of days within each month fixed, without regards to actual observation.]
There is no historical evidence that the Second Temple used a fixed Calendar.
|• Hananiah (AD 140) Tried To Pre-Calculate The Calendar, and It Was Ruled Unholy!|
Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. 6, 1910, article "Hananiah (Hanina)", [Haninah Hananiah Hanina AD 140, Generation #33],
"Believing that Roman tyranny had succeeded in permanently suppressing the religious institutions [academies] which, in spite of the Jewish dispersion, had held the remnants of Israel together, Hananiah attempted to establish an authoritative body in his new home [in the Babylon region]. To render the Babylonian schools [academies] independent of Palestine, he arranged a calendar fixing the Jewish festivals and bissextile years [years having 13 months] on the principles that prevailed in Palestine.
. . . In March 139 or 140 A.D., a message arrived from Rome announcing the repeal of the Hadrianic decrees; soon thereafter the surviving rabbis, especially the disciples of Akiba [a famous but deceased calendar scholar whose academy was in Palestine], convened at Usha, and reorganized the Sanhedrin with Simon b. Gamaliel II as president. They sought to reestablish the central authority, and naturally would not brook any rivals. Messengers were therefore dispatched to Nehar-Pekod, instructed to urge Hananiah to acknowledge the authority of the parent Sanhedrin [the new Judean Sanhedrin], and to desist from disrupting the religious unity of Israel.
The messengers at first approached him in a kindly spirit, showing him great respect. This he reciprocated, and he presented them to his followers as superior personages; but when he realized their real mission he endeavored to discredit them. They, for their part, contradicted him in his lectures; what he declared pure they denounced as impure; and when at last he asked them, 'Why do you always oppose me?' they plainly told him, 'Because thou, contrary to law, ordainest bissextile years [years having 13 months] in foreign lands'.
The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the deputies, to impress upon him the enormity of secession from the parent authority, publicly parodied Scriptural passages. One of them substituted 'Hananiah' for 'the Lord' in 'These are the feasts of the Lord' (Lev. xxiii. 4). Another recited, 'Out of Babylonia shall go forth the Law, and the word of the Lord from Nehar-Pekod,' instead of 'Out of Zion' and 'from Jerusalem' (Isa. ii. 3). When the people corrected them by calling out the proper readings, the deputies laconically replied, 'With us!' Yer. Ned. vi. 23a).
They also declared that the steps taken by Hananiah and his followers were tantamount to building an altar on unholy ground and serving it with illegitimate priests. Altogether, they pointed out, his course was a renunciation of the god of Israel.
The people [Jewish community] recognized their error and repented, but Hananiah held out. He appealed to Judah b. Bathyra, then in Nisibus, for support; but the latter not only refused to participate in the secession movement, but prevailed on Hananiah to submit to the orders emanating from the Judean Sanhedrin. Hananiah ended his life peacefully in Babylon."
A bissextile year is to decide to intercalate a year with an extra 13th month. Both Hananiah's and Hillel's calendars fixed the determination of bissextile years. Notice that the calendar academies were "in authority", and were holding Israel together, using the same calendar as they used before, as late as AD 140. Notice that the reason for Hananiah thinking that he needed to establish a fixed calendar in AD 140 was exactly the same reason Hillel ben Judah thought that he needed to establish a fixed calendar 200 years later, about 10 generations later. But notice that Hananiah's peers and superiors felt that to arrange a calendar fixing the bissextile years was akin to establishing a false religion. The central authority felt most strongly that to do such a deed was "a renunciation of the God of Israel".
Remember that this struggle is circa AD 140, generations after the Temple was destroyed. This struggle was over "authority", and was about who proclaims the Observed Lunar Calendar for both the Judean and the Babylonian regions, a regional calendar.
This struggle cannot be interpreted as a dispute over who makes the mathematical calculations for a pre-calculated calendar. The fact that the dispute included the topic of when to have a year with 13 months, is ample proof that the issue was not about a pre-calculated Hillel II type of calendar.
This historical account is a very strong indictment against those using a pre-calculated pre-sanctified calendar.
|• Babylonian/Palestinian Calendar Authorities Stayed Synchronized Until Circa AD 193|
Below is evidence that the entire "Jewish Community", from Babylon to Jerusalem, kept the same calendar as late as AD 163, and then beyond, at least to AD 193.
"The Jewish Encyclopedia", Vol.3, 1901, 1910:[Quoting]
[Begin Quote, Page 500]
"Under the patriarchate of Simon III (140 - 163 AD) a great quarrel arose concerning the feast-days and the leap-year [bissextile year], which threatened to cause a permanent schism between the Babylonian and the Palestinian communities - a result which was only averted by the exercise of much diplomacy."
Circa AD 163 there appears to be a major divergence in the rules for calendar determinations. Notice that this account can only be talking about an observed calendar. It cannot be talking about a fixed pre-calculated calendar.
Up until that time both eastern and western communities were still synchronized, using the same observed calendar. But in AD 163 either the Babylonian or the Palestinian calendar authorities tried to deviate from the ancient rules. Notice that the argument was between the eastern and the western communities, and therefore between Rabbinical and non-Rabbinical academies. Other evidence shows that it was the Rabbinical line of Palestinian authorities which began to add extra rules to the calendar. By trying to implement their "new rules" the Rabbinical line started to cause a major schism with the eastern communities, which obviously refused to accept their changes.
This also becomes evidence that the Christian communities in the east were still following the same unchanged Observed Lunar Calendar as late as AD 163, Generation #35, that is, seven generations of Christians.
The next paragraph, p. 500: [summary] ...tells how the Samaritans, circa 163 - 193 AD, confused the Jews by lighting false new moon signal fires, which caused the Jews to switch to using messengers. This then caused the more remote communities to have to begin to keep two days holy instead of one. [end summary]
Notice that this Samaritan deception did not occur until five generations after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70. Generations #1 through #34 had good communications while using the synchronized Babylonian/Palestinian Observed Lunar Calendar.
This documentation of the Samaritan deception demonstrates the continued use of the synchronized Babylonian/Palestinian Observed Lunar Calendar, all the way up to circa AD 193.
This Link Provides Much In Depth Historical Documentation From Original Sources:
"Biblical vs. Jewish Calendar"
Generally, to verify information you can use this Website:
A Jewish Calendar Online Calculator
Along with this Website too:
A Julian Date Calculator
|• New Moon Announcements Made Outside Of Jerusalem|
Hasting's Bible Dictionary, article "New Moon", [Generations #30 through #38], quote: "The new moon was announced in Judea till the year AD 225, when the declaration was made in Tiberias."
There is much significance to this simple statement. Foremost is that the Observed Lunar Calendar was still being determined and proclaimed by the Rabbinical Tradition in Tiberias as late as AD 225, Generation #38. This means that at least the first ten generations of Christians, even in Palestine, used an Observed Lunar Calendar.
|• The Karaite Split Circa AD 850|
A little investigation leads you to the Karaite movement circa AD 850. Essentially, this movement is a split between those that took the path we now call "The Rabbinical Tradition",
and those that took the path we now call "The Karaite Tradition".
Of course both sides claim to have the antiquity and authority over the Jewish Communities they minister.
For the purpose of the 'Calendar Debates', all that is necessary is to observe that:
• A central issue of the split was which Calendar System was to be used. The Rabbinical Tradition began to use the Hillel II Calendar, while the Karaites insisted that the traditional Lunar Calendar was not to be changed, and that it should continue to be the calendar of the Jewish Communities.
This summary is what they said about their own split, you can read it yourself.
What this tells us is that the Hillel II Calendar was previously not the calendar used by the Jewish Communities. Their own records tell us that up to this time all of the Jewish Communities used the Observed Lunar Calendar System. The Observed Lunar Calendar was the traditional calendar used by the Jewish Communities, all the way up to circa AD 850.
Later, the Karaite communities split within themselves. One group started to use the barley harvest as the criteria for determining when a new year begins, while the other group continued using the traditional method of the Zodiac and the Vernal Equinox (i.e. the astronomical solar spring). Today, many Jews reject both the barley-harvest Karaite tradition, and also the Rabbinic Hillel II Calendar tradition, and still use the original Observed Lunar Calendar.
This history directly challenges the claim that the Hillel II Calendar is the "Only Official Jewish Calendar".
History of Karaism
Historical Evidence Against Using The Barley Harvest
|Search for All Occurrences||Lexicon and Concordance||Greek Grammar Explanations|